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Do Air Purifiers Really Work?

Michael Pollick
Updated May 16, 2024
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The good news is that most air purifiers do purify the air. The bad news is most people derive little to no benefit from their use. Using air purifiers as part of a multi-pronged attack against allergens or pollution seems to be the best route to take, but the effectiveness of air purifiers alone is considered by consumer advocates to be negligible. Considering the average price of high-end air purifiers offered through specialty outlets such as Sharper Image or Brookstone, other less-expensive air treatments should most likely be considered first.

Air purifiers work in a number of ways, but quite commonly the purification mechanism is an electrostatic charge on metal plates. The entire unit is placed in a inconspicuous location and air naturally circulates through it. As the air passes over the charged plates, any dust or spores or other floating debris should be captured by the electrostatic charge, much like salt crystals being attracted to a statically-charged comb. The air coming out of passive air purifiers should be much cleaner than the air going into the unit.

The problem with passive electrostatic air purifiers is that many common allergens do not float in the air because they are too heavy. These allergens and germs remain on the ground or other surfaces and rarely if ever reach the electrostatic plates of air purifiers. Air purifiers also take allergens and harmful germs out of the air, but then cause them to fall onto carpets, furniture and clothing. The plates themselves must be removed periodically for cleaning, which could expose the user to more allergens and bacteria.

Air purifiers containing motorized fans do offer some advantages over passive models. More air can be treated if it is drawn into the unit mechanically. Air purifiers can also keep the air circulating, which keeps dust and allergens from landing on other surfaces. If a person required more purified air due to a health condition, air purifiers with special HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Arrestor) filters could work well in conjunction with other air filtration systems.

One of the major problems associated with air purifiers is the production of a heavy oxygen gas known as ozone. Ozone in the atmosphere serves as a protective layer against harmful solar radiation, but concentrated ozone in a confined space can cause a number of serious health problems. Many air purifiers using electrically-charged plates do generate ozone as part of their process. The health benefits of purified air may not be enough to overcome the potentially harmful effects of ozone-producing air purifiers. Consumers should look for HEPA filtration, low ozone production and some form of air circulation when shopping for air purifiers. The passive electrostatic air purifiers may offer some piece of mind, but very little actual health benefit.

EasyTechJunkie is dedicated to providing accurate and trustworthy information. We carefully select reputable sources and employ a rigorous fact-checking process to maintain the highest standards. To learn more about our commitment to accuracy, read our editorial process.
Michael Pollick
By Michael Pollick
As a frequent contributor to EasyTechJunkie, Michael Pollick uses his passion for research and writing to cover a wide range of topics. His curiosity drives him to study subjects in-depth, resulting in informative and engaging articles. Prior to becoming a professional writer, Michael honed his skills as an English tutor, poet, voice-over artist, and DJ.

Discussion Comments

By abirami8 — On Apr 21, 2016

Air purifiers may also be used in industry to remove impurities such as CO2 from air before processing. Pressure swing adsorbers or other adsorption techniques are typically used for this.

By rosemarywu32 — On Sep 25, 2014

Indoor air is often more harmful than outdoor air,usually two to five times serious than outdoor, sometimes up to 100 times, because of various contaminants such as smoke, formaldehyde,benzene, etc. and other allergens. In order to solve this problem, people invented the air purifier. These devices help to remove harmful substances, improving indoor air pollution, the hazards of secondhand smoke effectively.

Indoor air quality can be greatly improved by using a good indoor air purifier. The invention enables those people who suffer from allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases have benefited much . Depending on the specifications indicated, some air purifier can remove pollen, dust, smoke, pet dander and other substances. Some are able to reduce or remove include odors, viruses, fungi, bacteria, harmful chemicals.

Depending on the type of system used, various technologies can be implemented in an air purifier. High Efficiency Particulate Airfilter (HEPA), Filtering including the purification of very fine particles through very tiny sieves. Electrostatic precipitation may be used to attract and trap airborne particles. Ultraviolet light, negative ions, activated carbon and other technologies may also be implemented in a filtration system.

By anon338024 — On Jun 10, 2013

Some electrostatic filters also include an ozone filter to take care of any ozone produced by the high voltage in the collection plate area. I know this because the Oreck Truman cell electrostatic filter units that I bought have the carbon honeycomb in behind the collection cell that is an ozone filter.

By SarahSon — On Nov 03, 2012

I did research on air purifiers in Consumer Reports before deciding on the best one that would fit my budget. I think one of the most important things when it comes to an air purifier doing a good job is the filters you use.

You can't just plug in an air purifier, never touch it and expect it to do you any good. You need to change the filters and make sure they are cleaned on a regular basis. We have two dogs in our house all the time and I think an air purifier helps keep the dog smell out of the air.

By myharley — On Nov 02, 2012

I used to run an air purifier in my home all the time. I have had everything from expensive to cheap models and didn't really notice much of a different with any of them. I haven't used an air purifier for quite awhile now and have not noticed any difference in my health.

If you want to buy an air purifier I would recommend starting out with an inexpensive one to see if it does you any good before investing in one that is more expensive.

Some of them are also noisier than others, so if you want something that is quiet that is something you will want to check into before you bring it home as well.

By John57 — On Nov 01, 2012
I have bad allergies, and do feel like my air purifier helps me breathe better. I mostly use this on a seasonal basis and when spring comes and the pollen is bad, I start running my air purifier. I usually keep this in the bedroom so I can sleep better at night. I am sure some models work better than others, but I have had good enough results with mine that I continue to use it every year.
By julies — On Nov 01, 2012

I have thought about getting an air purifier just so I am breathing cleaner air in my home. After reading this article I wonder if it would even be worth it and might I be making it worse?

I have a small diffuser that I use with water and essential oils. This also helps purify the air, but covers such a small area and I was looking for something that would cover a larger area.

By cloudel — On Oct 31, 2012

I have an air purifier with no filter, and for the first few weeks, it did wonders for the air in my room. I could breathe easier at night without sneezing or becoming congested.

The purifier was quiet, because I kept the fan speed on low. It seemed to be the most wonderful solution to my allergy problems.

However, after about four weeks, it started making weird noises. I cleaned it out, but the popping and whizzing continued.

I still have no idea what caused this. I cleaned it more than once, just to make sure it wasn't something that this could remedy. However, I had to finally give it up, because the noise was annoying and I feared it might catch fire in the night.

By OeKc05 — On Oct 31, 2012

@feasting – First, I would like to say that for me, air purifiers do work well. I don't have asthma, though, and my allergies are mild.

There are a couple of other things that you can do, since you cannot tolerate the ozone. Make sure that your air filter on your HVAC unit is kept clean. Change it or at least check it once a month.

Also, vacuum and dust your house once a week. There is so much dust that accumulates in just a week on my furniture that any asthmatic guests would be horribly bothered if I didn't dust often.

By feasting — On Oct 31, 2012

@StarJo – Ozone put out by a one room air purifier can cause respiratory problems. It could be anything from light irritation to trouble breathing, coughing, and asthma.

It's pretty bad that something which is supposed to help you breathe easier can actually cause an asthma attack. Does anyone know what some good alternatives to air purifiers are? I have allergies and am prone to asthma, so I need help with this.

By StarJo — On Oct 30, 2012

So, home air purifiers can actually be bad for you? What are some of the side effects of the ozone they produce?

By anon161190 — On Mar 18, 2011

My air purifier is just using a HEPA filter, and no electrostatic. But it seems to work well, it can remove smells from the air. The only negative is you'd need to move it room by room to clean all of the air in the house.

By pistachios — On Jul 16, 2010

We use an air purifier in the "man cave" of our home. It is the only room where people are permitted to smoke. While the purifier does not completely eliminate the smoky smell, it does seem to clean the room out a bit and keep it from looking murky. Because the air is circulated with the purifier and ceiling fans, there is less stale smoke left after a televised football game gathering than there normally would be.

By WildRacer — On Jul 13, 2010

As someone with moderate allergies to dust mites and pollen, I have found my air purifier to be quite a boon. After a bit of experimentation I discovered that the passive electrostatic purifiers simply do not cut it, but ones containing motorized fans keep me breathing easy. I would, however, recommend getting a friend to change the filters for you if you have allergies, or, at the very least, covering your nose and mouth.

Michael Pollick

Michael Pollick

As a frequent contributor to EasyTechJunkie, Michael Pollick uses his passion for research and writing to cover a wide...
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