A number of different organizations have created network management models that can be used to organize and oversee a computer network. Most of these models use five areas of management that were established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO); these functional areas are Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security (FCAPS) management. Numerous network management models have been established to better organize these areas including Telecommunications Network Management (TNM). The Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) and Common Management Information Service (CMIS) are often used for networking, while the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) functions better with the Internet.
Most network management models are established to make computer networks easier to setup and administrate. These different systems are often used to better handle management over five functional areas referred to as FCAPS. Fault management is used to find and deal with faults that occur within a network, while configuration refers to the devices used to set it up. Accounting is the process by which information passed through the system is tracked, and performance management ensures it is operating properly. These network management models also ensure that security is upheld within the system through authorization tools and access control.
Telecommunications Network Management or TNM is one of several network management models established to better organize FCAPS in a system. TNM is set up in four management layers that are used to then handle the different functional areas. The business management layer deals with internal business concerns, while the service layer ensures administration services are dealt with. There is also a network layer that oversees how network resources are being used, while an element management layer controls the devices and different elements that make up the network.
Other network management models include the Common Management Information Protocol or CMIP. This is a system used by providers of telecommunications services that allows for network control and management. It is somewhat complex, however, so the Common Management Information Service or CMIS was created to make the use of this model easier. Much like other network management models, CMIP is used for FCAPS organization, though there may be little or no focus on accounting management.
While CMIP is typically used for networks that do not include Internet connectivity, the Simple Network Management Protocol or SNMP allows for Internet functionality. This is a simpler form of model than CMIP and is often used in data networks. Monitoring, performance, and fault management are often the focus of this system, while configuration and accounting are less important. Some network management models, like CMIP, have been established by the International Organization for Standardization or ISO, but SNMP is sponsored primarily by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).