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There are a myriad of electronic supplies and components available. Components can be considered passive, meaning they can operate without external power, or active, meaning they cannot operate without external power. Some of the most basic types of passive electronic supplies include inductors, resistors, and capacitors. When these basic components are combined, they produce additional types. Transistors and batteries are prime examples of active components.
Terminals and connectors are electronic supplies used to make cables and specific electrical connections. Many variations of switches exist either to break the flow of electrical current, known as an open switch, or to pass electrical current, known as a closed switch. Switches can be manually operated or triggered by a particular event, such as thermal or magnetic activity.
Resistors are used to pass current and are in nearly every electronic circuit and have a number of possible variations. For example, there are fixed-value, variable-value, and voltage-dependent resistors. Capacitors store and then release an electrical charge and have a number of uses, such as filtering power voltages.
Another large category of electronic supplies includes items like protection devices and power devices. Fuses, circuit breakers, and lightning arresters are common types of these components designed to protect circuits from excessive voltages and currents. Electronics that provide electrical power include acid or alkali batteries, fuel cells, and power supplies.
Inductors, electronic supplies that use magnetism, can be found in components such as transformers, solenoids, and microphones. Additional active components that can be used for amplification in applications are known as transistors. Loudspeakers and buzzers are a type of electronic known as a transducer, generating a physical effect driven by an electrical signal. Sensors and detectors are variations on the transducer that generate an effect only under specified conditions, typically environmental, such as motion or position.
Semiconductors and integrated circuits make up another vast category of electronic supplies. Diodes are a type of semiconductor designed to conduct electricity in one direction and that come in many styles. Light emitting diodes (LED) are the most well-known variety. Integrated circuits can be either digital or analog.
The list of variations and configurations of integrated circuits is long and includes many well-known computer components. Memory in all of its forms falls into this category. Also included are other types of electronic supplies, such as display drivers, microprocessors, and micro-controllers. Optoelectronic components, consisting of items like LED displays and photo-couplers, form another category. Many more types of electronic supplies are available, covering virtually every possible application.