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A dictaphone is a specialized piece of recording technology. These devices are primarily designed to facilitate the recording and subsequent transcription of the spoken word. The term originated as a brand name of the Dictaphone Corporation but is often used as a general term for devices that perform this type of function. This type of recording device is typically designed to be portable and to record sound at a useful but not perfect level of audio fidelity.
The history of the dictaphone dates back to the 1920s when the corporation was formed. The first models used a version of the same sound recording technology then in use in the recording industries in which a stylus etched a pattern onto a recording surface. The etching could then later be played back. These machines were typically used in lieu of human secretaries, allowing a central typing pool to type out letters from multiple sources.
As sound recording machines evolved during the 20th century, dictation machines evolved with them. Larger versions of these machines were produced, some of which were accessible via telephone to an entire enterprise, but smaller models were more successful. Magnetic tape in a variety of different formats eventually came to dominate the dictaphone market. Cassette tapes and micro-cassettes became the standard recording formats for this type of office equipment.
Dictaphones were used primarily in office environments, but the company manufactured a wide array of machines to record sound. Recording machines with a larger capacity were produced to record signals from radio broadcasts, for example. Commercial radio could be captured in such a fashion but so could the transmissions from aircraft and other broadcast sources that could usefully be archived.
The dictaphone and similar pieces of dictation equipment remained in widespread use until the emergence of personal computers. The growth of the computer led to the decline of dictation and a parallel decline in the market for dictaphone devices. These devices, in both analog and digital format, remain in use to the present day but tend to be restricted to certain niche markets.
Professionals who conduct interviews often employ this type of recording device. Historians and anthropologists are especially likely to rely on machines similar to the dictaphone as they conduct fieldwork and interviews. Some doctors and lawyers continue to rely on these machines as well.
Recent advances in computer technology have led to a resurgence of interest in voice recording as a means of data entry. Many pieces of consumer electronics are capable of voice recognition today. These machines continue the tradition of the original dictaphone and allow users to easily generate written text from spoken words.