While there are many different Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques that have been developed, with new methods being created, a few forms of artificial intelligence have become increasingly popular. Some of the most common techniques include the use of neural networks and the development of expert systems. These different artificial intelligence techniques can be used to develop different forms of AI, usually based on the amount of “thinking” the program can actually do, and these are known as either “strong AI” or “weak AI.”
AI techniques are methods that can be used to develop and create computer programs commonly viewed as forms of artificial intelligence. In general, artificial intelligence refers to a program that is able to mimic or re-create the thought processes demonstrated by the human brain. This usually involves solving problems, making observations or receiving input for use in analysis or problem solving, and the ability to categorize and identify different objects and the properties of those objects.
There are many different artificial intelligence techniques that can be utilized by an AI programmer, though two of the most common are neural networks and expert systems. Neural networks are computer programs designed around the cognitive processes used by the human brain. Essentially, a neural network consists of layers of categorization and methods by which objects can be identified and categorized. This is similar to the idea of schema in human cognition, which allows people to identify objects based on properties of those objects. New information presented to the neural network can then be analyzed and identified based on previously inputted criteria, allowing the system to “learn” new categories and identify known or unknown objects.
Expert systems are AI techniques built around logic and “if/then” statements. This usually involves a great deal of information that is “taught” to the computer system, which then makes the system an expert in a particular field. When new input is introduced, such as a request for processing financial reports, the expert system can analyze the information using these if/then statements to limit the output response.
These various artificial intelligence techniques can be used to develop systems that are considered either “strong AI” or “weak AI.” Strong AI systems are those that most fully seek to emulate human thought and cognitive capabilities through a wide range of functions. These systems can analyze new information and provide output that potentially goes beyond the limitations of input data. Artificial intelligence techniques that develop weak AI systems are narrower in focus, and seek to replicate only a single function or aspect of human intelligence.